But how can we ensure our players are learning? How can we identify what information they are obtaining or why they decide to make certain decisions on the field? What about the simple but effective art of questioning?

What can we use questioning to check for?
Knowledge: Do our players recall, reproduce, and list a given piece of knowledge?
Comprehension: Do they understand what this knowledge represents?
Application: Can they apply this knowledge to a game situation?
Can our players manipulate this knowledge? Specifically:
Analysis: Can they compare, contrast, examine, and test the knowledge with other inputs?
Synthesis: Can they collect, assemble, integrate, and organize similar pieces of knowledge?
Evaluation: Can they appraise, choose, compare, predict, and evaluate use of knowledge?
Use questioning to understand the players comprehension of the strategies, tactics, and skills of the game:
Convergent: Leads to a specific answer(s)
Ex. Which teammate is your best passing option?
Divergent: Leads to multiple answers
Ex. What are at least 3 things you and your teammates can do to create more passing options?
This is also known as effective questioning.